ICE | The Israel Chemist and Chemical Engineer | Issue 8

27 The Israel Chemist and Chemical Engineer Issue 8 · November 2021 · Kislev 5782 Report in Science and Technology coordinates national activities on this issue in coordination and cooperation with the European Community. It should be noted that the chemistry field is less “masculine”. There are more than 60% female students studying for BSc and MSc degrees, and more than 50% for PhD but, still, faculty women are ~ 10%. Degani [13] referred to the situation of women in science in Israel, and said that there is huge progress in women’s science education but, still, women are not eager to be the chairs of science and biotechnology faculties in academia or in industry. Most women with a PhD are struggling with sharing their time between family and career, and in many cases they make career concessions on the professional level. Arnon [14] said that, although among the students studying at universities and colleges for all three degrees, women make up more than half, in the faculty of universities in Israel, women make up only 29%! This figure is considered particularly low compared to Western countries where the percentage of faculty members is about 40%. Out of 31 countries examined, Israel is ranked 30th! The glass ceiling is a common phenomenon in Israel. Also, the higher the rank, the lower the percentage of women among the academic staff – the well-known scissors phenomenon. The glass ceiling is a common phenomenon in Israel. Women make up only 16% of full-time professors at universities, a lower-than-average rate in Western countries. Regarding the physics discipline, Jona and Nir [15] claim that about one third of those who study physics at high school are girls. This drops down to about 16% of female students at the first, second, and third university degrees, and then drops further down to about 7% of academic staff. During the last few years, universities in Israel initiated a few programs, aimed to promote gender balance but, still, it is not possible to assess the success of these programs in improving gender balance. 2.1 Examples of programs of enhancing women scientists’ career in two academic institutions in Israel The examples of programs aiming to enhancewomen scientists’ careers will refer to two academic institutions in Israel: The Weizmann Institute of Science, and the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion). These two institutions were chosen, since both of them are world-class multidisciplinary science and technology research institutions. 2.1.1 Enhancingwomen scientists’ career at theWeizmann Institute of Science [16]. The Weizmann Institute of Science gave priority to the development of the careers of women scientists. Following are a few examples: • Offering nat ional postdoctoral award program for advancing women in science • Offering comprehensive information on scholarships for Master’s and PhD students, as well as postdocs, including t ravel scholarships , excel lence scholarships , and scholarships for advancing women in science. • Hosting a variety of activities for female students (MSc students, doctoral students and postdocs), including a mentoring program. Students are matched with female scientists who can provide support and encouragement in all matters concerning career advancement and direction. • Celebrating women researchers by providing a snapshot of the research world through their eyes. In their essays, the authors tell some of their personal stories, and share the challenges and successes that were significant in their careers. One of the celebrations was dedicated to Ada Yonath, a distinguished woman chemist from the Weizmann Institute of Science. She was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with Indianborn American physicist and molecular biologist Venki Ramakrishnan and American biophysicist and biochemist Thomas Steitz, for her research into the atomic structure and function of cellular particles called ribosomes [17]. 2.1.2 Enhancing women scientists’ careers at the Israel Institute of Technology In 2016, the Technion held the first conference for outstanding female high-school students from all over Israel “Tech Women 2016” [18]. Attended by 670 high-school students, the conference was designed to encourage female students to pursue higher education in science and engineering. This first conference was held in honor of International Women’s Day in March. It was supported by the Rosalyn August Girls Empowerment (GEM) Mission, which was launched by Rosalyn August Girls Empowerment Mission (GEM) at the Technion in 2016. There are presently over 5,000 female students at Technion, and 32% of the master’s students and 44% of doctoral students at the Technion are women. TechWomen 2020: 6th TechWomen event - featuring “X-Men”, and the Israel Security Award [19] Three hundred outstanding female high school students in science and mathematics attended a virtual event which showcased an array of opportunities flowing from academic studies in science and engineering at the Technion. The event was held courtesy of the Rosalyn August Foundation for the Empowerment of Young Women. August, who lives in Florida, greeted the students from her home, telling them: “I have always felt that women could do whatever they want. I believe in you and your leadership to change the world. You have talent that many women long for, and you are an